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Older rural women are expected to dress in black after the death of their husbands for about seven years, and many wear it for the rest of their lives. These jokes are some of the better (and cleaner) ones from a couple Ciudad Futura pages which, unfortunately, no longer exist. ¿Has oído el caso de ese fugitivo que secuestró un autobús de turistas japoneses? The Catholic Church was a major player in New Spain's transformation.� Church-owned monasteries, haciendas, obrajes, and other institutions dotted the landscape.� Natives were required to give tribute to the church, and many priests became rich.� For every friar who sincerely believed in his holy mission, others kept concubines, solicited women during confessionals, drank heavily, fed people to their dogs, and so on.� As with monastic wineries in Europe, New Spain's versions often made pulque, although many priests tried stamping out drunkenness.� The Jesuit hacienda of San Xavier was devoted almost exclusively to making pulque (it sold more than six million pounds of it in 1770), and had one of the highest incomes of any hacienda. [64] Another economic effect of European hegemony was the introduction of guilds.� They were anti-competitive institutions and natives were often excluded from them.� Blacksmiths and veterinarians, with their relationship to elite European horsemanship, made it clear that natives were not allowed in their professions.� All apprentices were to be "Spaniards, pure and without stain, as demonstrated through their baptismal records, for ours is a noble profession." [65] Laws enacted in colonial Mexico, called New Spain in those days, were explicitly racist and designed to oppress the natives.� Three races – European, African, and Indian – met in the New World.� The Spanish developed 16 categories of interracial distinction in 18th-century New Spain. [66] � Of the 200,000 “Spaniards” in New Spain by 1570, it is estimated that two-thirds were of Jewish or Moorish descent, to cloud the racial picture further. [67] � Conquering Spaniards marauded from town to town and seized the best looking women for their concubines and created Mexico's huge mestizo class.� Erstwhile Cor t�s allies Tlaxcala and Huexotzinco found themselves worse off with the Spanish overlords than the hated Mexica, and they were the natives who got the “good deal” from the Spanish.� They would not have believed it, but the days when the Mexica ruled were the “good old days.”� Helping Cort�s conquer Tenochtitl�n slit their own throats in the end as Mesoamerica's native population collapsed during the century after the Spanish conquest.

Pages: 217

Publisher: Riverhead Books; Reprint edition (June 5, 2012)


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Although there had always been alliances between different European nations, the diplomatic trend during the nineteenth century was to have secret alliances, committing states to defensive military action. These were encouraged by Bismarck who, in the process of unifying Germany, sought to pacify those surrounding states which might proved hostile , source: Ramon Maria Del Valle-Inclan: Questions of Gender Ramon Maria Del Valle-Inclan: Questions. In 1585, Ral eigh tried establishing a colony at Roanoke.� Although the natives of the North American east coast, particularly the southerly shores, had already suffered from numerous Spanish depredations and European-introduced epidemics, [97] the natives welcomed and fed the Roanoke pirate-colonists, who arrived via the Caribbean, where they plundered and traded with Spanish colonists.� The English pirate-colonists originally hunted for gold, and quickly wore out their native welcome, as they destroyed a town and burned its cornfields when a silver cup went missing.� The colony failed, with the survivors probably adopted into the native tribes. [98] Raleigh followed up the Roanoke failure with a fruitless quest for El Dorado in South America, in 1595.� He also sought to establish a beachhead to attack and seize Spain’s South American mines.� Raleigh spent 13 years in the Tower of London for alleged treason against James I, and was finally released to seek El Dorado again.� James I forbade Raleigh to harass the Spanish, who were at peace with England at that time, but Raleigh’s expedition attacked a Spanish outpost, his son died in the process, and Raleigh lost his head in 1618 to satisfy the Spanish Crown.� England's first per manent settlement in the New World was at Jamestown, founded in 1607.� By that time, Europeans had established their murderous intentions in that region, and Jamestown was a military outpost from the beginning, and no women accompanied the first landing.� As usual, the invaders sought gold, and their first task was building a fort in Pamunkey lands before the natives realized what was happening.� Due to European-introduced disease, those lands already had a small fraction of the human population that it possessed a century earlier.� It may have been no exaggeration when an elderly native told the English invaders in 1608 that he was the only surviving member of his family, going down his family tree for three generations. [99] � Jame stown's relationship between natives and invaders was largely hostile from the beginning.� Powhatan was the Pamunkey chief and his warriors attacked before the fort was finished.� The English strategy was intimidating the natives with their weaponry, which included a cannon.� Largely for self-serving reasons, Powhatan initially fed the starving invaders, and both sides played diplomatic games.� Powhatan’s younger brother, Opechancanough, captured John Smith, the most capable Jamestown leader, when Smith tried forming an alliance with a tribe independent of Powhatan.� Powhatan studied Smith and adopted him.� Powhatan probably thought that he was installing his adopted relative as the chief of his new, dependent, white-skinned tribe.� The English tried reversing the political situation by crowning Powhatan the next year, and make him a subject of King James by doing so.� Neither side probably fully appreciated what the other tried accomplishing with its political gestures.� The Eng lish then tried allying with Powhatan’s enemies, and Powhatan stopped feeding the invaders in 1608.� John Smith then raided neighboring villages and held people for ransom, including an infamous instance when he held a loaded gun against Opechancanough, as Smith extorted food.� In 1609, the English were starving, sick, and began spreading out along the shores in “self-sufficient” settlements.� In one expedition, Smith compelled the natives to “sell” an entire village, with its ripening cornfields, to the invaders.� War broke out, and Powhatan had his warriors encircle and starve out the Jamestown fort.�� The Englishmen resorted to cannibalism that winter, and many fled and took up residence with the natives, in the first recorded English instances of “going native” in the New World Mass Culture in the Age of read here

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